æ¡, Valko-omenamangrove, Nakshathrakandel Native Global Distribution. Photo by Jessica Teo. Mangrove apple is a widespread pioneer mangrove species found between latitude of 25° N and 25°S (Tomlinson 1986) in Indo-West Pacific region from East Africa (Mozambique), Madagascar through the India (Sundarbans), Southeast Asia, to northern Australia (Daintree River), and Pacific Islands (New Caledonia). The calyx is reflected backwards from the protruding style and towards the stalk. Flowering and fruit fall occurred during the dry period and short rainy season respectively. Next time if you see shiny crystals on the leaves, lick it to taste! Between S.alba against other Sonneratia spp. S.alba flowers blooming in cluster. Mangrove apple has been planted in mangrove restoration projects in India and Philippines. The base is not crimson. S. alba (Tomlison 1986). Mr Rick Leong for the field work experience. Retention of water in the leaves give rise to leaf enabling them to store high concentration of salts in tissue. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2(6): 427–429. Foliage: leaves are simple and stalked. Mangroves prevent erosion by stabilising sediments with their roots system. Kesimpulan . Kathiresan, K. & S. Z. Qasim, 2005. The dominant members of the association are A. marina and S. alba. The decomposing exocarp would break open to release numerous tiny seeds contained inside. Mangrove apple ensures the survival of Dawn Bat, an important animal pollination vector of durian, when seasonal durian flowers are not in bloom. Since Mangrove apple is a pioneer mangrove species, it would be the first line of natural wave breakers that protect. Australian Mangrove and Saltmarsh Resource, Sonneratia. This section will focus on the man-made threats to mangroves globally. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 419pp.Wang, R., Z. Chen, E. Chen & X. Zheng, 1999. Global ocean currents and the global distribution of S.alba illustrated by green dots. But it has been highly degraded, with many of the native Sonneratia alba mangrove trees dead. Reprint. Retrieved Nov 09, 2013, from http://wiki.trin.org.au/Mangroves/SonneratiaCorlett, R.T., 1991. Pencil roots rising above the soil allows roots to have access to atmospheric oxygen in the anaerobic soil condition. Photo by Wan Hong on flickr shared under CreativeCommons. Summary of the threats to mangrove and effects of mangrove loss. The hybrids in Sonneratia have reduced fitness in comparison with their parental species. Kairo, J.I.Kinyamario, F.B. I could not locate any flower with stamens which could help in ID... Stamens bunch is seen in this picture:Â Sonneratia alba_Padel8.JPG. An on-line version is also available. 2000. Mangrove Apple has simple, broad leaves. Photo by globalweathersystems.com and edited by Jessica Teo. Photo by globalweathersystems.com and edited by Jessica Teo. When ripe, the fruits dropped off the parent tree and start to decay. In this study, we investigated the fungal communities associated with the mangrove tree Sonneratia alba throughout Peninsular Malaysia and â¦ He & D. E. Boufford, 2000. The seedlings undergo. Roots:It bears thick and blunt pneumatophores which are conical roots that emerged out of the mud and grow up to 1 m tall, which are exposed during low tides and submerged during high tide. The fruits, dark green when young and ripening to yellowish green, measure up to 7 cm (3 in) long. When sea level rise, mangroves will naturally migrate landwards towards higher ground to prevent prolong tidal inundation. Vegetative and reproductive phenological traits of, Zhou, R.C., X. Gong, D. Boufford, C.I. Pohon Sonneratia sp. Using ultrafiltration at root level, the plant is able to restrict uptake of salt in high salinity environment. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 12: 217. It bears the characteristic pink mark at the tip of young leaves. Clifton, E. & Duke, N., 2012. the retention of water in the leaves giving rise to leaf succulence in many species, viz., Sonneratia apetala, S. alba, Lumnitzera recemosa, Salvadora persica etc. Sonneratia alba was first described in Cyclopedia 33 1816 No. For better viewing of species' pages, colour scheme & formatting is being followed as: Description of the species, Details of other flora species on the same page, Uses/ harms, Distribution, Abundance/ Location/ Flowering time & date, Habit & habitat, Etymology & pronunciation, Other interesting information, stories etc., Others, Botanical names, Common names, Main point of discussion below, Discussion about Botanical names. photo from Langkawi Mangrove Biodiversity Database. In Central Java, S. alba. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 8: 149. Retrieved Nov 20, 2013 from http://mangrove.nus.edu.sg/mandai/significance.html The IUCN Red list of Threatened Species, Sonneratia alba. When ripe, the fruits dropped off the parent tree and start to decay. ... sumber pakan habitat biota laut. Biodiversity of Mangrove Ecosystems. 51 PENYEBARAN ALAMI Avicenia marina (Forsk) Vierh DAN Sonneratia alba Smith PADA SUBSTRAT PASIR (Distribution Pattern and Density Avicenia marina (Forsk) Vierh and Sonneratia alba Smith on Sand Substrate)* Halidah1 dan/and Harwiyaddin Kama2 1Balai Penelitian Kehutanan Makassar Jl. The decomposing exocarp would break open to release numerous tiny seeds contained inside. Hindustan Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, 256pp. Kjer, J., V. Wray, R. Edrada-Ebel, R. Ebel, A. Pretsch, W. H. Lin & P. Proksch, 2009. 18. Retrieved Oct 28, 2013, from https://florafaunaweb.nparks.gov.sg/Special-Pages/plant-detail.aspx?id=4739 Shahbudin, S., M. Taher, D. Susanti, H. Qaralleh & A. F. I. The flowers are pollinated by Moths, bats, birds. Sonneratia ovata grows up to 20 metres (70 ft) tall with a trunk diameter of up to 20 centimetres (8 in). Perintis kemerdekaan Km 16,5 Makassar (90243) Telp. Its hard fruits resemble fleshy berries that are round and flattened, with a cup-shaped calyx at the base of the fruit. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 92-103. Description. Sonneratia alba and Sonneratia apetala were collected from Two hybrids of the genus, Wang’ondu, V. W., J.G. Global ocean currents and the global distribution of S.alba illustrated by green dots. Retrieved Nov 09, 2013, from. Opposite leaves are elliptic to ovate or obovate in shape, with a rounded or broad leaf tip, petiole 5-10 mm long. Mandai mangrove, Singapore: lessons for the conservation of Southeast Asia’s mangroves. William, J.M. from demarcated plots of using plot-less methods. The Ecology of the Indonesian seas Part 2. Photo by Jessica Teo. It is associated with freshwater habitat. In vitro antimicrobial activity of mangrove plant Sonneratia alba. Env. Mangrove Apple form mangrove s. It is a photoautotroph. B. Kauffman, D. Murdiyarso, S. Kurnianto, M. Stidham & M. Kanninen, 2011. The calyx is cup-shaped with its inner surface reddish at the base. Mangrove apple is found in low-intertidal habitat in regions of high to moderate rainfall where it receives both fresh and saltwater input. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Guihaia, 19: 199–204. Sonneratia alba grows naturally in many tropical and subtropical areas from East Africa to the Indian subcontinent, southern China, the Ryukyu Islands, Indochina, Malesia, Papuasia, Australia and the Western Pacific region. dominant mangrove species of the creek, besides Sonneratia alba, Rhizophora mucronata and Rhizophora apiculata are also observed. Australian Mangrove and Saltmarsh Resource, Sonneratia. In some areas A. marina forms pure formations, mostly in disturbed habitats. Sampling protocol Bimonthly sampling was conducted from October 2012 to September 2014 mostly using cast nets (1.5 â 3.5 m depth; 10 â 20 mm mesh; stringless and stringed). Communication: The phenology of Sonneratia alba J. Smith in Berbak and Sembilang National Park, South Sumatra, Indonesia. The rod shape of . Mangrove apple is also able to undergo self-pollination when pollinators are lacking. Retrieved Nov 12, 2013, from, Wang, R., Z. Chen, E. Chen & X. Zheng, 1999. Important habitat. I would like to specially thank Ms Ria Tan, Mr Wan Hong, Phil Myers and Dr Pierre Grard for their wonderful pictures that made my page more attractive; Dr Alison Wee, Dr Edward Webb and Dr Daniel Friess for inspiring me to work on mangroves and loving them. Compiled by Jessica Teo. Australian Journal of Botany, 53: 109–117. Studies of the in vitro cytotoxic, antioxidant, lipase inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of selected Thai medicinal plants. S.alba leaf with a pink mark at the tip of the leaf. Coupland, G.T., E.I. But it has been highly degraded, with many of the native Sonneratia alba mangrove trees dead. Isolated from the Mangrove Plant Sonneratia alba. B. Kauffman, D. Murdiyarso, S. Kurnianto, M. Stidham & M. Kanninen, 2011. CRC Press, London, 704pp. 16(3), 93-105, March 2020. Wood of S. alba from Malvan has high (4062.28 Cal/g) calorific value and charcoal percentage (54.48 %) 15. Avicennia-Sonneratia community is represented by species of Avicennia and Sonneratia. Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics. Mangroves provide refuge for juveniles that were too vulnerable to enter the ocean. Journal of Natural Products, 72: 2053–2057. Mangrove apple’s bark showed significant antioxidant cytotoxic and antimicrobial properties against harmful bacteria (, Furthermore, secondary metabolites (eg Xanalteric acid) were extracted from an endophytic fungus Alternaria species inside Mangrove apple that displayed antibiotic activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria (. India Biodiversity Portal, Sonneratia alba. Images and content by others should not be used without permission. In vitro antimicrobial activity of mangrove plant Sonneratia alba. In particular, please adhere to copyright law. potensi secara e konomi sehingga dapat . Paling & K.A. Photo by © Phil Myers. Avicennia-Sonneratia community is represented by species of Avicennia and Sonneratia. Gibson, R.N., M. Barnes & R. J. This flameback is a species associated with a diversity of rather open forest habitat, ... the greater flameback has been found to prefer tall Avicennia alba for foraging, while the common flameback rather indiscriminately utilizes that species as well as Bruguiera parviflora and Sonneratia alba. Mangrove Apple form mangrove s. It is a photoautotroph. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. Its habitat is sheltered sandy seashores and tidal creeks. By 1960s, many had been cleared for development; currently, there are only approximately 500ha left in isolated small patches (green dots). The dominant members of the association are A. marina and S. alba. Hence Sonneratiaceae is not a distinct family rank but subset of family Lythraceae. McGuinness, 2005. Sonneratia show great medical potential for future drugs. There are both natural and man-made threats to mangrove forest, but anthropogenic threats are causing mangroves loss at a rapid rate beyond reestablishment rate. These grasses have now been killed by the salt water and mangrove ferns along with salt-tolerant sedges and mangrove shrubs (Sonneratia alba, Excoecaria agallocha, Acanthus ilicifolius) have recolonised. : (0411) 554049 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; â¦ Sonneratia alba, Avicennia alba and Rhizophora apiculata can be manipulated as ecological indicator tool for landcape monitoring to accumulate inorganic contaminants in mangrove ecosystem would significantly derive through leaf and root tissues also sediment. 19. It is noted for attracting wildlife. The grey bark is smooth to fissured bark. Names of Plants in India :: Sonneratia alba Sm. Sivasothi, N., 2003. Carbon stocks of Rhizhopora apiculata and Sonneratia alba of mangrove forest in Ngurah Rai Forest Park, Bali Province, Indonesia. Sonneratia was named after the French naturalist, Pierre Sonnerat (1748-1814), in remembrance of his explorations of New Guinea, Moluccas and China; and his works on the first European description of lychee fruit. A. Atkinson, 2003. Xanalteric Acids I and II and Related Phenolic Compounds from an Endophytic Alternaria sp. Various factors contribute towards a type of zonation pattern that is recognizable, especially in the larger mangrove swamps. The calyx is reflected backwards from the protruding style and towards the stalk. National Parks Singapore, Sonneratia alba. ... âFor mangroves, for example, these would be Avicennia marina and Sonneratia alba â¦ Friess, D. A., J. Phelps, R. C. Leong, W. K. Lee, A. K. S. Wee, Sivasothi N, R. R. Y. Oh & E. L. Webb, 2012. Buah Chiratia leucantha Montr.Sonneratia acida Benth.Sonneratia iriomotensis Masam.Sonneratia mossambicensis Klotzsch ex Peters. Pioneer species like Mangrove apple is essential in modifying the soil condition first before other mangrove species can colonised. Two hybrids of the genus Sonneratia (Sonneratiaceae) from China. Mangrove Watch for identifying between Sonneratia spp and hybrids. are rich in tannin which is an antimicrobial agent used in prevention of dental caries. Sebanyak 1.800 individu dalam 49 taksa dan 34 keluarga dikumpulkan dari mangrove menggunakan jaring ikan. fungi associated with the mangrove tree Sonneratia alba throughout the Malay Peninsula to test whether fungal communities differ by geographic location and plant part sampled. Xanalteric Acids I and II and Related Phenolic Compounds from an Endophytic Alternaria sp. Retrieved Nov 09, 2013, from. Singapore mangroves serve as an important stop-over for migratory birds flying from the northern Eurasian continent to Africa and southern parts of Asia along the East Asian Australasian Flyway to escape winter. The pics are of 2 different plants at 2 different locations, though close to each other. Accepted Name Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Myrtales > Lythraceae > Sonneratia > Sonneratia alba Sm. Moving pictures to show the process of S.alba blooming and fruiting. Increase wave action also act as a physical disturbance that limit seedlings establishment. It is able to stay afloat for a period of time which aid in sea dispersal. Fruits: Its hard fruits resemble fleshy berries that are round and flattened, with a cup-shaped calyx at the base of the fruit. Paling & K.A. The diversity, species composition, habitat and utilization of mangrove were analyzed in Pamintayan, Dumanquillas Bay, Philippines. B. Awang, 2012. Annual migration traffic can reach as high as 12 to 15 thousand million birds. Studies of the in vitro cytotoxic, antioxidant, lipase inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of selected Thai medicinal plants. A. officinalis is sparsely distributed in the islands while the occurrence Avicennia alba requires Sonneratia spp. Mangroves act as filters for upland runoff. Individuals can grow to 5.6 m. Mangrove species is in low diversity (Hâ = 1.1445) with four species which include Rizophora mucronata, Rizophora apiculata, Sonneratia alba, and Avicennia alba. Suatu hutan didaerah tropis banyak ditumbuhi oleh pohon Sonneratia alba dengan tajuk daun yang rimbun. Changing hydrodynamic especially from the increase in shipping around previously low energy shores, is increasing the wave energy causing erosion, tree fall. The structure of mangrove vegetation is characterized in terms of species richness, diversity, tree/stem density, species and stand basal area, frequency of occurrence of constituent species, plant/stand height, above ground biomass and canopy volume/leaf area index. 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